Effective capital management is an essential component of meeting the Group’s strategic objective of maximising shareholder value. The capital value used by the Group as the primary performance measurement base is Group Equity Value (GEV), as reported on page 170. The management of the Group’s capital base requires a continuous review of optimal capital levels, including the use of alternative sources of funding, to maximise return on GEV. The Group has an integrated capital and risk management approach. The amount of capital required by the various businesses is directly linked to their exposure to financial and operational risks. Risk management is accordingly an important component of effective capital management.